Make – special usage : Here ‘ MAKE ‘ has the meaning ‘ to force’ OR ‘ to compel ‘. When ‘ Make’ or ‘Made’ is used in the active form , headless infinitive (bare infinitive) is used. And in the passive voice the usual form of infinitive is used. Structural differences when ‘ force, compel’ and ‘make’ are used may be clearly distinguished from the examples given below:
- The security staff forced us to stand in queue.
- The security staff made us stand in queue.( active – here headless infinitive is used , i.e simply ‘stand’ is used without ‘to’ being preceded)
- We were made to stand in queue by the security staff.(passive – here normal infinitive is used , i.e with ‘to’ , to stand)
- The police officer compelled us to stop the car.(compelled us to stop ….)
- The police officer made us stop the car.( active – made us stop….)
- We were made to stop the car by the police officer.(passive- made to stop..)
- The money-lender forced me to sign a few documents.
- The money-lender made me sign a few documents.(active)
- I was made to sign a few documents by the money-lender.(passive)